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Aluminium Characteristics


Aluminium is a light metal which can be given tremendous strength by alloying. It conducts heat and electricity, reflects light and radiant energy and resists corrosion. It is also non-magnetic, non-toxic, and can be formed by all known metal working processes. Because of these advantages it has thousands of uses.

The density of Aluminium is 2.7kg/dm³ or approximately one third the density of Steel
Aluminium alloys have tensile strengths of between 70 and 700N/mm² at low temperatures the strength increases without embrittlement in contrast to most steel alloys
At high temperatures the strength decreases . At constant temperatures over 100°C the structural strength is affected so much special consideration must be taken

Compared with other metals Aluminium has a relatively large coefficient of linear expansion. In some fabrications it is necessary to take account of this

Aluminium is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity . An Aluminium cables weighs half as much as a copper cable with the same conductive capacity

Good malleability which is a necessity for Aluminium Extruding , allows bending and other forming operations in both hot and cold conditions

Aluminium is simple to fabricate with most punching and machining techniques it is also suitable for advanced bonding and welding

As with most other metals Aluminium reacts with oxygen in the air . The oxide layer which is created is very thin , only a fraction of a micron . The oxide layer is compact and provides very strong corrosion protection

Aluminium is non toxic with its compounds found naturally in our food

Physical characteristics of some of our most important construction materials

 

Al

Fe

Cu

Zn

Nylon (polyamide 6-60)

Delrin (Polyacetal)

Weight volume g/cm³

2.7

7.9

8.9

7.1

1.1

1.4

Yield Point (YP), °C

658

1540

1083

419

255

175

Heat / Thermal Volume J/kg, °C

900

450

390

390

1680

1470

Heat / Thermal Conductivity W/m, °C

220

75

390

110

0.23

0.23

Linear exp. coeffecience x 10 -6/C

24

12

16

26

70-100

80-90

Electrical conductivity % I.A.C.S

63

16

100

30

-

-

Electrical resistance x 10-9 ohms/m

27.5

105

17

58

-

-

Coeffecience of elasticity, Gpa

70

220

120

93

3

3

 

The following table outlines some of Aluminium's features and uses.

Alloy

Characteristics

Available Forms

Typical Uses

1200

Commercially pure' Aluminium. Very ductile in extruded condition. Excellent resistance to corrosion.

Simple shapes.

Mouldings, lightly stressed and decorative assemblies in architecture and transport, equipment for chemical, food and brewing industries; heat exchangers.

6063

Suitable for intricate extruded sections of medium strength. Forms well in T4 temper. High corrosion resistance. Good surface finish. Excellent finishing characteristics especially anodising.

All shapes. Tubing, rod.

Architectural members such as glazing bars and window frames. Windscreen sections. Road transport trim.


6005

General purpose structural alloy. Good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and weldability.

Structural shapes. Rod, bar and tubing.

Structural applications of all kinds. Road and rail transport vehicles, cranes, bridges, roof trusses etc. Drive screws, bolts and nuts

6060

Special purpose structural alloy. Good surface finish and corrosion resistance. Good formability in T4 temper. Good weldability. Responds well to surface finishing, especially anodising.

Structural shapes of all kinds. Rod, bar and tubing. Offered in the T5 temper with the same mechanical properties as 6351 T6.

Structural applications where surface finish is important or where thin, intricate shapes are involved. Yacht masts, road transport sections, e.g. Plankflor. Ladder sections.

6063 / 6063A

The recommended alloy for structural purposes with good strength and general corrosion resistance. Good weldability.

Structural shapes. Rod, bar, tubing.

Vehicles, bridges, cranes, roof trusses and all general structural applications.

6082

Free machining alloy of medium strength giving fragmented chips. Not suitable for anodising.

Rod and bar.

Automatic lathe products.


Alloys are available in different tempers each giving different results see table below

0.2% proof stress N/mm²

Tensile strength N/mm²

Elongation % on 50mm

Typical Hardness Brinell

6063 F

-

-

35

T4

70

130

14

55

T5

110

150

7

65

T6

160

195

7

80

6063 T4

75

125

14

T6

160

185

9

6082 T4

120

190

14

65

T6

255

295

7

100

NOMINAL MASS (kg/m2) of Aluminium sheet and plate

THICKNESS

mm

NOMINAL

kg/m2

THICKNESS

mm

NOMINAL

kg/m2

0.5

1.355

3.0

8.130

0.6

1.626

4.0

10.840

0.7

1.897

5.0

13.550

0.8

2.168

6.0

16.260

0.9

2.439

8.0

21.680

1.0

2.710

10.0

27.100

1.2

3.252

12.0

32.520

1.6

4.336

16.0

43.360

2.0

5.420

20.0

54.200

2.5

6.775

25.0

67.750


To calculate NOMINAL mass (kg/m) of extruded Aluminium sections, tube, etc:
(a) Calculate cross-section area (mm2);
(b) Multiply by 0.00271.

To calculate FACTOR (i. e. the "difficulty of extrusion" factor):
(a) Calculate the perimeter of the section (Note: for hollows, add outside perimeter and inside perimeter);
(b) Divide this by the nominal kg/m of the section.

METRIC CONVERSION DATA

Length:
1 inch = 25.4mm
1 foot = 0.305m
1 mm = 0.0394 inches
1 m = 3.28 feet

Area:
1 sq inch = 645mm2
1 sq foot = 0.0929m2
1 mm2 = 0.00155 sq inches
1 m2 = 10.8 sq feet

Volume:
1 cubic inch = 16387mm3
1mm3 = 0.000061 cubic inches

Force:
1 pound per foot = 4.45 Newtons
1 Newton = 0.225 pounds per foot

Stress:
1 pound per sq inch = 0.00689MPa
1 MPa = 145 pounds per sq inch

 

 


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